为什么在Expression.Call上编译的lambda编译比应...

codeday· 2019-11-11
本文来自 codeday ,作者 codeday
为什么在Expression.Call上编译的lambda构建比应该执行相同操作的委托慢一些?以及如何避免呢?

解释BenchmarkDotNet结果.
我们正在比较CallBuildedReal和CallLambda;其他两个CallBuilded和CallLambdaConst是CallLambda的“子表单”,并显示相等的数字.但是与CallBuildedReal的区别是很重要的.

//[Config(typeof(Config))]
[RankColumn, MinColumn, MaxColumn, StdDevColumn, MedianColumn]
[ClrJob , CoreJob]
[HtmlExporter, MarkdownExporter]
[MemoryDiagnoser /*, InliningDiagnoser*/]
public class BenchmarkCallSimple
{
    static Func<StringBuilder, int, int, bool> callLambda;
    static Func<StringBuilder, int, int, bool> callLambdaConst;
    static Func<StringBuilder, int, int, bool> callBuilded;
    static Func<StringBuilder, int, int, bool> callBuildedReal;
    private static bool Append<T>(StringBuilder sb, T i1, T i2, Func<T, T, T> operation)
    {
        sb.Append(operation(i1, i2));
        return true;
    }

    private static Func<StringBuilder, T, T, bool> BuildCallMethod<T>(Func<T, T, T> operation)
    {
        return (sb, i1, i2)=> { sb.Append(operation(i1, i2)); return true; };
    }

    private static int AddMethod(int a, int b)
    {
        return a + b;
    }

    static BenchmarkCallSimple()
    {       

        var x = Expression.Parameter(typeof(int));
        var y = Expression.Parameter(typeof(int));
        var additionExpr = Expression.Add(x, y);

        callLambdaConst = BuildCallMethod<int>(AddMethod);
        callLambda = BuildCallMethod<int>((a, b) => a + b);

        var operationDelegate = Expression.Lambda<Func<int, int, int>>(additionExpr, x, y).Compile();
        callBuilded = BuildCallMethod(operationDelegate);

        var operationExpressionConst = Expression.Constant(operationDelegate, operationDelegate.GetType());

        var sb1 = Expression.Parameter(typeof(StringBuilder), "sb");
        var i1  = Expression.Parameter(typeof(int), "i1");
        var i2  = Expression.Parameter(typeof(int), "i2");
        var appendMethodInfo = typeof(BenchmarkCallSimple).GetTypeInfo().GetDeclaredMethod(nameof(BenchmarkCallSimple.Append));
        var appendMethodInfoGeneric = appendMethodInfo.MakeGenericMethod(typeof(int));
        var appendCallExpression = Expression.Call(appendMethodInfoGeneric,
                new Expression[] { sb1, i1, i2, operationExpressionConst }
            );
        var appendLambda = Expression.Lambda(appendCallExpression, new[] { sb1, i1, i2 });
        callBuildedReal = (Func<StringBuilder, int, int, bool>)(appendLambda.Compile());
    }

    [Benchmark]
    public string CallBuildedReal()
    {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        var b = callBuildedReal(sb, 1, 2);
        return sb.ToString();
    }

    [Benchmark]
    public string CallBuilded()
    {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        var b = callBuilded(sb, 1, 2);
        return sb.ToString();
    }

    [Benchmark]
    public string CallLambda()
    {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        var b = callLambda(sb, 1, 2);
        return sb.ToString();
    }

    [Benchmark]
    public string CallLambdaConst()
    {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        var b = callLambdaConst(sb, 1, 2);
        return sb.ToString();
    }
}

结果:

BenchmarkDotNet=v0.10.5, OS=Windows 10.0.14393
Processor=Intel Core i5-2500K CPU 3.30GHz (Sandy Bridge), ProcessorCount=4
Frequency=3233539 Hz, Resolution=309.2587 ns, Timer=TSC
  [Host] : Clr 4.0.30319.42000, 64bit RyuJIT-v4.6.1648.0
  Clr    : Clr 4.0.30319.42000, 64bit RyuJIT-v4.6.1648.0
  Core   : .NET Core 4.6.25009.03, 64bit RyuJIT


          Method |  Job | Runtime |     Mean |    Error |   StdDev |      Min |      Max |   Median | Rank |  Gen 0 | Allocated |
---------------- |----- |-------- |---------:|---------:|---------:|---------:|---------:|---------:|-----:|-------:|----------:|
 CallBuildedReal |  Clr |     Clr | 137.8 ns | 2.903 ns | 4.255 ns | 133.6 ns | 149.6 ns | 135.6 ns |    7 | 0.0580 |     192 B |
     CallBuilded |  Clr |     Clr | 122.7 ns | 2.068 ns | 1.934 ns | 118.5 ns | 126.2 ns | 122.6 ns |    6 | 0.0576 |     192 B |
      CallLambda |  Clr |     Clr | 119.8 ns | 1.342 ns | 1.255 ns | 117.9 ns | 121.7 ns | 119.6 ns |    5 | 0.0576 |     192 B |
 CallLambdaConst |  Clr |     Clr | 121.7 ns | 1.347 ns | 1.194 ns | 120.1 ns | 124.5 ns | 121.6 ns |    6 | 0.0571 |     192 B |
 CallBuildedReal | Core |    Core | 114.8 ns | 2.263 ns | 2.117 ns | 112.7 ns | 118.8 ns | 113.7 ns |    3 | 0.0594 |     191 B |
     CallBuilded | Core |    Core | 109.0 ns | 1.701 ns | 1.591 ns | 106.5 ns | 112.2 ns | 108.8 ns |    2 | 0.0599 |     191 B |
      CallLambda | Core |    Core | 107.0 ns | 1.181 ns | 1.105 ns | 105.7 ns | 109.4 ns | 106.8 ns |    1 | 0.0593 |     191 B |
 CallLambdaConst | Core |    Core | 117.3 ns | 2.706 ns | 3.704 ns | 113.4 ns | 127.8 ns | 116.0 ns |    4 | 0.0592 |     191 B |

基准代码:

注意1:有类似的SO线程“ Performance of expression trees”,其中构建表达式在基准测试中显示出最佳结果.

注意2:当我将获得编译表达式的IL代码时,我应该接近回答,所以我正在尝试学习如何获取编译表达式的IL代码(linqpad ?、 ilasm集成到VS ?、动态汇编?),但是,如果您知道可以通过VS实现的简单插件-会对我有很大帮助.

注意3:这不起作用

    var assemblyBuilder = System.AppDomain.CurrentDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(new AssemblyName("testLambda"),System.Reflection.Emit.AssemblyBuilderAccess.Save);
    var modelBuilder = assemblyBuilder.DefineDynamicModule("testLambda_module", "testLambda.dll");
    var typeBuilder = modelBuilder.DefineType("testLambda_type");
    var method = typeBuilder.DefineMethod("testLambda_method", MethodAttributes.Public | MethodAttributes.Static, typeof(bool), 
        new[] { typeof(StringBuilder), typeof(int), typeof(int), typeof(bool) });
    appendLambda.CompileToMethod(method);
    typeBuilder.CreateType();
    assemblyBuilder.Save("testLambda.dll");

由于System.TypeInitializationException:“ InvalidOperationException:CompileToMethod无法编译常量’System.Func3 [System.Int32,System.Int32,System.Int32]”,因为它是一个非平凡的值,例如活动对象.可以构造该值的表达式树.”
这意味着appendLambda`包含参数类型为Func的参数,该参数类型不是基本类型,并且CompileToMethod仅使用基本类型是有限制的.

最佳答案
由于reasons,编译后的表达式可能会变慢:

TL; DR;

The question is, why is the compiled delegate way slower than a manually-written delegate? Expression.Compile creates a DynamicMethod and associates it with an anonymous assembly to run it in a sand-boxed environment. This makes it safe for a dynamic method to be emitted and executed by partially trusted code but adds some run-time overhead.

有诸如FastExpressionCompiler之类的工具可以帮助缓解问题(免责声明:我是作者)

更新:查看已编译委托的IL

>可以将编译后的委托IL作为字节数组获取:

var hello = "Hello";
Expression<Func<string>> getGreetingExpr = () => hello + " me";

var getGreeting = getGreetingExpr.Compile();

var methodBody = getGreeting.Method.GetMethodBody();

var ilBytes = methodBody.GetILAsByteArray();

>您需要一种解析/读取数组并将其转换为IL指令和参数的方法.

可惜,但我没有找到允许我这样做的工具或强大的NuGet软件包:-(

这是相关的SO question.

最接近的工具可能是this.